Date of Consultation: 15.04.2010
Name and surname of the dog's owner: Bożena Borkowska (wife) 31 years old
Other family members: Adam Borkowski (husband) 33 years old, Maciej Borkowski (son) 2 years old
Dog/female dog: female dog
Race: Terrier type
Age of castration/sterilization: 3 years
Age: 5 years
Problematic behavior: Dog bit owner's son (incident repeated 2 times)
Description of the problematic behavior, its history and other information that I obtained during the interview with the owners:
Wasp is a female dog adopted from a shelter. The owners did not know her origin, and the shelter from which they adopted her did not receive such information. The female was adopted from a shelter at the age of approx. 18 weeks. The owners stated that from the beginning her behavior indicated that she had been beaten. She had difficulty getting used to the new Master, she hid from him, she often cowered in fear when he raised his hand, shouted, or quote: "he tried to discipline". However, according to the owners, she got used to him and quote: "she felt respect for him". The methods of disciplining the owners used were spanking with a newspaper (as they heard, when a dog is scolded with a newspaper, the dog does not see the direct connection of the punishment with the owner, only the object with which the punishment is carried out - in this case the newspaper).
In the past - when Osa was adopted, the owners worked outside the home for an average of 8-9 hours a day, then the bitch stayed at home alone. However, before and after leaving for work, Osa went for a walk, each one lasting an hour. The dog was then thrown a ball and toys, which she eagerly fetched. Weekends and all days off were quite active. These were trips to the mountains, to the lakes, to the tents. Then, unless they were traveling abroad, they took Osa with them.
Wasp has never been to training. The discipline methods used by the owners were as discussed above - spanking with the use of a newspaper, however, after presenting the problematic behavior (biting the child, Wasp was spanked with the bare hand).
In addition, the female dog is a cheerful dog, she likes guests who pay attention to her. The female dog, however, does not allow anyone to get close to her blanket, which is lying in the hall. Apparently, every visitor is informed not to step on her blanket when leaving the room. For 5 years, the blanket has been in the same place, in the hall. It is a strategic place on the way to all other rooms as well as the entrance to the house. The owners informed me that Wasp's problematic behavior was not repeated elsewhere in the house - she only presented it on her blanket.
Approx. 10 months before the main problem appeared, there was a change in the life of the owners, a child was born. During her pregnancy, Ms. Bożena was on sickness benefit. At that time, she devoted more time to the dog, because she knew that after the birth of the child, she would have much less time, so she wanted to "reward" her. When her son was born, Osa spent less and less time with the owners. Two hour walks turned into so-called "quick pee" walks, which usually did not last longer than 10-15 minutes. In most cases, attempts to interest the dog in a child ended with the dog being moved away to the blanket. The owner admitted that since the birth of her son Osa, she spent quite a lot of time on the blanket (especially in the presence of the Lord who did not tolerate attempts to sniff the child, but when her husband was not at home, Osa could afford more).
About 10 months after Maciek's birth, the first incident took place, when the son crawled on the Wasp's blanket, which in turn bit him (apparently without warning). The owners scolded the dog (corporal punishment). A few months after the first, another incident occurred. Matt was bitten on the Wasp's blanket. Wasp was rebuked again. The owners decided that they could not risk their own child's life and decided to seek help from a dog psychologist, giving the dog one last chance.
Apart from these two incidents on the blanket, the owners stated that Osa loves Maciek and they often play together. In addition, the son often went for a blanket to Wasp before and between these two incidents. These wanderings never ended with a child biting.
During the visit, the owners also pointed out that Osa is afraid of a storm, then she often behaves strangely, goes under Oliwka's bed or into the bathroom and can't get her out of there with any force. The owner calms her down by lovingly stroking and talking to her. The owner, on the other hand (if she is at home, asks her out for a blanket).
Relations with other dogs are fine, Wasp is very happy for any contacts with dogs, she is very friendly towards them.
Wasp had an acute ear infection in the past which was treated. However, until this sweat, you can't touch the ear.
The wasp is fed once a day, usually in the evening. The owner prepares meals for her and such a meal consists of 1/3 ground chicken or other meat, 1/3 rice or pasta and 1/3 carrot. In addition, the dog's diet is not supplemented with any other nutrients, vitamins or microelements. Water is not available all the time, because Osa often spills it, tramples it, shakes it off the beard, which, according to the owners, is not very hygienic, especially with a child. He gets water a couple of times a day with the owners, after which the bowl is put on the kitchen counter.
Observations during the visit:
Although the owners claimed that Osa (apart from two incidents on the blanket) loves the boy, I noticed that during the dog-child interaction, the dog showed clear signs of anxiety. During these interactions, the Wasp used many calming signals. She stretched, yawned, licked her nose, scratched herself, turned her head away. The boy approached the dog directly, held out his hands to him, chased him around the table, tried to feed him crisps. Contrary to the beliefs of the parents, the dog was not relaxed but stressed by this situation. He gave all "dog" signals that the situation he was in was not comfortable for him. Attempts to leave the room or hide in a corner were unsuccessful, as the child followed the dog.
I asked the parents to prevent the boy from having contact with the dog. The owner sent the dog for a blanket. As I tried to walk from the room to the bathroom, ignoring the dog, the Wasp visibly froze and then showed its teeth. For safety reasons, I withdrew and asked to muzzle the dog, even though the owners informed me that Wasp wouldn't do anything to me as long as I didn't step on her blanket. When I tried to approach the blanket, Wasp repeated the entire sequence - she froze, showed her teeth and growled.
During the visit, I noticed a disagreement between the owners as to how to treat the dog. The owner is a bit more "relaxed" when it comes to the dog's contact with the child or the issue of the dog staying in other rooms except for the hall, the owner, on the other hand, prefers the dog to stay on his blanket and clearly irritated when he leaves him without permission.
During the observation, I also noticed that the dog was scratching persistently.
Goal stated by the owners: No more child biting incidents as a primary goal. Calm Wasp's fears of the storm.
First of all, I will deal with the assessment of the dog's mood on a daily basis, the assessment of emotions during the behavior and the assessment of reinforcements.
An important step is to recognize the mood of the animal's emotional well-being in normal situations, i.e. how the animal feels in general on a daily basis, outside of problem situations.
As presented in Figure 1, Wasp's mood can be assessed as a dog that is clearly anxious. The wasp seems to be alert and attentive to the boy all the time, even when he is on the blanket "watching".
In each case, it is the daily mood of the dog that requires attention above all, emotions can be worked on only when we stabilize the mood of the OSA at least at a level that allows communication with it.
The level of mood is subject to the process of homeostatic regulation. The emotional brain tries to maintain the so-called state of contentment, seeking to compensate for any deviation from the "normal" level. As I noticed, Osa takes care of her body quite intensively - especially when she is on a blanket. This may be a reaction of the dog under stress or inability to perform behaviors that maintain normal emotional well-being. In the event of the impossibility of implementing these species-specific behaviors, mood-sustaining behaviors could develop. Restoring emotional well-being by allowing the dog to engage in other self-rewarding behaviors makes the dog better prepared to deal with unpleasant emotions. The owners, since the birth of the child, do not pay the dog due attention, walks and social contacts have been limited, and because her essential, emotional needs have ceased to be met, her behavior serves to balance the emotional state.
It is extremely important to formulate an opinion about what the animal experiences during problematic behavior - whether it is afraid, experiencing frustration, anger, is sad, or maybe joyfully excited. The wasp learned that biting a child causes the owners to immediately take it from the blanket, and therefore they move away from the danger of the dog. So in emotional terms, Wasp's fear turns into a feeling of relief as the distance between her and her baby increases. When Wasp sees the boy, her first reaction is concern. When the boy approaches the blanket and stretches his hands towards the head, the Wasp feels fear (starts snapping his teeth and growling), when the baby does not read her signals, the Wasp bites and the fear is replaced by a feeling of relief when the owners take the baby from the blanket. It doesn't matter that the punishment comes shortly after, because it is done too late for the Wasp to associate it with her behavior. First, the owners take the baby out of the blanket, check if everything is okay. Kara appears a few minutes later.
Problematic behavior is rewarding for Wasp. It is a reinforcement for her that the child moves away. Wasp's emotional evaluation shows that she is experiencing an emotion of relief, which is rewarding in itself. An important part of the reinforcement assessment is to consider what reinforcing activities can be used in a behavior modification program. To change undesirable behavior, it is not enough to simply prevent the animal from performing it. He needs to be taught an alternative behavior that is equally or more rewarding. It is possible that the undesirable behavior occurred because the animal could not display important innate behavioral patterns and needed to do something that would sustain the necessary state of contentment. In order to assess this, I will create an OSY pleasure balance sheet in the following.
Many animal behavior problems stem from the inability to display strong, innate behavioral patterns. These animals choose other, inappropriate behaviors instead. These, in turn, become addictive, dopamine-driven, pleasure-seeking behaviors.
The above balance of pleasure has been drawn up based on the type of terrier breed, because it is very important to approach a given case taking into account its individual behavior patterns (hunting chain) presented for a given breed, but also strictly dependent on a specific case and its individual needs. “(…) different dog breeds organize their social structure in different ways. What is important to one breed, in terms of 'herd rules' and communication systems, is not necessarily important to another breed." "There is probably no such thing as a 'dog', but we should define each breed according to its highly individual and complex behavioral patterns."
Wasp's balance of pleasure is disturbed on virtually every level. In the past, owners devoted much more time to the dog, and daily walks lasted more than 2 hours. During these walks, Wasp had the opportunity to explore the area and play with the owners, fetch the ball, play in dragging the toy. At the moment, walks have been drastically reduced and consist only of walking on a leash around the block. “On a neurological level, the play system works by increasing dopamine levels in the brain. PLAY also gives animals opportunities to practice hunting skills and reproductive behavior.” It is very important to provide Ośa with this kind of stimulation in order to maintain a good "mood".
Social contacts - the bitch is usually expelled from the room where the child is, because the owner does not want the dog to have contact with the child. The owner, mainly in the absence of her husband, allows the dog and the child to play together. The wasp is not often stroked and cuddled because, according to the owner, it smells bad. Osa is a very sociable dog, in the past she spent a lot of time with her family, accompanying them on all kinds of trips. When I entered the house, the dog greeted me with a wagging tail. However, he was chased out of the room pretty quickly. The dog's social needs are met at a very low level.
The female dog, staying on her blanket, "nurtured" her body quite intensively. She licked her paws, she did it quite persistently. It is possible that allergic reactions were the underlying cause of this behavior initially. However, this behavior is inherently rewarding in itself. The female dog has probably developed a pattern of alternative behavior that brings satisfaction and relief. In the event of impossibility to implement behaviors appropriate for the species or type of animal, mood-sustaining behaviors could be developed, such as caring for one's body.
Food - Although the Wasp gets to eat once a day, it is quite a large amount of food at a time. It will be much better to divide the same portion into 3-4 small meals, thus minimizing blood sugar fluctuations.
Rest, sleep - despite the fact that Osa spends a lot of time on her bed - this is not a place where she rests. She seems to be always vigilant, especially when someone is in the hall, which certainly happens very often due to the fact that this is a strategic place adjacent to all rooms. A blanket is not a safe place where you can really go to rest. The situation is aggravated by a child who is naturally interested in a dog, so wandering towards the blanket happens often. The dog's rest time should be balanced and the female dog should have her own place in the house where no one will disturb her.
The problem behavior of the Wasp is the bite of a child. Therefore, at this point it is worth looking at what factors trigger aggression, ie who, what, why and under what circumstances. Answers to these questions will allow to develop techniques of conduct, thanks to which it will be possible to modify undesirable behavior, i.e. reduce and eliminate aggression.
“A model of aggression has been developed, which includes an attempt to organize the stimuli that cause it. It can be applied to a large number of cases in which biting occurs as a result of multiple stimuli. This is the so-called threshold model. Every dog will bite when it reaches a certain threshold beyond which its tolerance ends.
The collected information and the description of the incident in which the attack took place clearly showed that the situation was influenced by a number of factors that exceeded the tolerance threshold of Osa. Wasp, like any dog, is able to tolerate a certain amount of discomfort or tension, however, exceeding this threshold results in a bite. Over hundreds of years of evolution, dogs have developed a whole set of threat signals that they present when threatened in order to distance the source of the threat. They are: growling, showing teeth and snapping teeth in the air, shown sequentially. Only if these signals do not work, or the situation seems so threatening to the dog that it does not have time to show them, it resorts to attacking and biting. The individual factors that make up the situation add up, causing the highest threshold - the attack - to be exceeded.
In the case of Wasp, these elementary factors are: a child, approaching a blanket, a man, a storm, touching ears. As soon as it reached the blanket, the Wasp was immobile, a moment later it began to growl and snap its teeth (the thresholds of growling and snapping teeth are very close - as I have shown in Fig. 3). The owner informed me that the son had stepped on the dog's blanket many times before and in between the incidents and nothing bad had happened. It could therefore be assumed that one more factor could have occurred, which together with the others contributed to the level exceeding the threshold of the attack. We can surmise that it was the discomfort the dog felt when touching it behind the aching ear. Risk factors and reaction thresholds are shown in Figure 3. Figure 4 shows 3 factors that overlap and exceed the Wasp's strength threshold, which in turn leads to an attack. I decided to include other risk factors in the diagram, e.g. a storm. Although it did not contribute to the incident in any way, the picture shows how quickly the thresholds would be exceeded and how quickly the attack would occur if you approached the dog's blanket during the storm. Knowing the Wasp's reaction thresholds, we can do two things - firstly, we can control the problem of preventing aggressive behavior from occurring. In this case, it seems like a solution that we should take immediately, because we do not want the attacks to happen again. I suggested to the owners that the blanket from the hall should be moved to another, quieter place, one where the dog will feel safe and one where the child will not have access. Instead of a blanket, the so-called kennel cage where the dog can hide. The peace of the dog must not be disturbed by the child, so I propose a solution to install special gates in the door that prevent the child from having direct access to the dog. The next step will be to introduce a program to desensitize the dog to stimuli that cause discomfort and which, when combined, can lead to exceeding the last reaction threshold - an attack. I am talking here especially about desensitizing to a child, men, touching ears (after they have been cured) or even the sounds of a thunderstorm.
The animal's diet requires special attention. The wasp is fed once a day with food prepared by the owners and it is 1/3 chicken 1/3 rice 1/3 carrot. In addition, the diet is not supplemented with any other vitamins or trace elements. It is very important to provide the dog with a properly balanced diet so that it gets all the nutrients it needs - in the right proportion to each other. The first thing I suggested to the owners was to visit a veterinarian to rule out food allergies to any of the ingredients of the diet, and to make a diagnosis regarding the general health of the animal. Only after the diagnosis is made, it will be possible to make decisions regarding the most appropriate, balanced food. Proper nutrition means consuming all nutrients, carbohydrates, fats, proteins, minerals, vitamins and water in the right amounts and proportions. It is necessary for the proper development and functioning of the body, reproduction, regeneration of body tissues as well as combating stress and diseases. As a result of the visit, it turned out that Osa was allergic to lactose, chicken and protein. Therefore, the dog has been selected an appropriate, balanced food that does not contain the above allergenic ingredients. We must remember that aggressive behavior may be caused by a lack of a proper diet, as discomfort caused by malaise, allergic reactions (in the case of Osa, the smell) in combination with other "triggers", may cause increased stress in the dog and, consequently, the risk of problem behaviors – in our case, aggressive behaviors.
I suggested to the owners to change the feeding frequency to 3-4 times a day to reduce blood sugar fluctuations. Low blood sugar can also indicate the cause of aggressive behavior where no other cause has been identified. Lowered sugar levels may also partly explain some animals' transition from deep sleep to an aggressive state when the brain has too little energy to make rational decisions. Owners also cannot restrict the dog's access to water.
A problematic issue for the owners is also the behavior of the dog during a thunderstorm. The wasp then becomes very restless, walks around, can't find a place, it happened to get under the child's bed, into the bathroom and even into the open wardrobe. The owner usually places the dog on a blanket, and the owner tries to calm her down by stroking and talking to her. The behavior of the owner contributed to the strengthening and consolidation of fears, which could make the emotion of the drug give way to a sense of relief, which in turn strengthened the anxiety behavior.
Therapy in this case will initially consist mainly in improving the dog's well-being during the storm, and then in desensitizing. However, desensitization cannot take place during this turbulent period of the year, as it is carried out gradually, and therefore we cannot afford that during the process Osa will be exposed to a real stress factor. Therefore, we left the work on desensitization for a later period - October 2010.
First, during a storm, you need to provide your dog with a safe haven. In practice, this means leaving the rooms open to the bathroom, room. The dog will choose the place where he will wait out the storm. Wasp chose a dark bathroom.
In addition, I also suggested to the owners a visit to a veterinarian who, during turbulent periods, could possibly introduce pharmacological therapy. In a situation of fear of a thunderstorm, it may be necessary to improve the dog's mood, because the attitude to fear stimuli can permanently reduce emotional well-being. A drug that improves mood, supports learning and memory is clomipramine, which blocks the reuptake of serotonin, thus causing the mood to rise. At a time when a storm is approaching, diazepam is also effective, which is designed to soothe the experience of fear and block the memory of unpleasant events. Because diazepam is cleared quickly from the body, it does not adversely affect the behavior modification program implemented in the course of therapy. Some sources say that the administration of melatonin is effective, as this hormone can make the dog more relaxed and less concerned with what is happening around. However, the use of any pharmacological agents should be agreed and used strictly in consultation with the veterinarian. That's why I referred the owners to a veterinary consultation.
As an aid in dealing with Wasp's anxiety, mainly as part of a behavior modification program, I recommended that owners use DAP in the form of a plug-in diffuser. Dog soothing pheromones, as the name suggests, have a calming effect, relieving anxiety and stress. The discontinuation of the soothing pheromones is an important stress factor at weaning. Studies have shown that the calming properties of these pheromones persist in adult dogs as well. I recommended keeping the diffuser plugged in throughout the thunderstorm season.
I had a short conversation with clients about dog-child interaction, in particular about the right approach and controlled play of the dog with the child. You cannot allow a situation when a child violates the dog's space. Safety issues are very important here - not only for the child, but also for visiting guests. I presented the Wasp reaction thresholds to the owners, because I thought it was important for the owners to be aware of what stimuli can contribute to the occurrence of aggressive reactions. I taught my parents to notice the calming signals the Wasp sends and when it sends them.
I divided the proposed therapy program into several stages, so as not to introduce too many things at the same time, motivating the owners more often with quick and frequent successes achieved at each stage of the program. A time scale has been created for each stage. All exercises were practiced practically - learning simple commands was the most motivating for the owners, as they were impressed by Wasp's rapid progress.
In the therapeutic plan, I first proposed:
A visit to a veterinarian to rule out or diagnose an allergy to any of the food ingredients (or in the case of an allergy diagnosis - to choose the right food), assess general health and the possibility of using pharmacological help in the field of fear of a storm.
- Prevention therapy. The dog's blanket should be moved to another place where the Wasp will be able to rest in peace (suggestion of a kennel cage or other booth). Installing gates in the door that prevent the child from easily getting to the dog.
- Improve your dog's mood during storms by providing him with a "safe haven" and DAP support
- Changing the frequency of feeding (and changing the food to hypoallergenic after consulting a doctor)
- Already after introducing and implementing the above assumptions, the Wasp should calm down more, bedding in a quieter place will not expose it to such stress as before. Also the main stressor, the child, will be eliminated. Introducing increased feeding frequency will minimize fluctuations in sugar levels and the right (hypoallergenic) food will make the dog's itch disappear and therefore less sensitive to touch. If the dog has been trained without using positive reinforcement techniques, it is likely that it has experienced more negative events than positive ones. Together with the owners, we have selected prizes that particularly motivate Osa and arranged them according to her preference scale. At the same time, when choosing a motivator, you must remember that this scale will change (when a dog's need is satisfied, another one will probably move to its place on the scale of importance)
a) retrieving the ball
b) social contact with the owners
a) For a child
From the very beginning, Wasp needs to learn that being around a child is about good things that happen to her, not bad things. Until now, a child was equal to chasing a dog on a blanket. In the "understanding" of a dog, when a child appears, something pleasant ends (for example, the possibility of being in a room with the owners). From now on, Wasp was to be fed in the presence of the child so that she finally felt relaxed with him. In this case, the idea is to create a positive association - a child = good things. Matt, assisted by his parents, was also supposed to throw treats to the dog.
b) Touch behind the ear
We will proceed similarly in desensitizing the dog to touch behind the ear. In this situation, however, we had to wait for the doctor's diagnosis regarding the exclusion of ear disease - we do not want to discourage the dog from touching it even more (if, for example, such a touch caused him pain). In this case, we will also use treats given for each hand approaching the head and, as a result, for stroking behind the ear, but remember that in case of any discomfort felt by the dog, you will have to go back to the previous stage and repeat it for the next sessions, until the dog will not be ready for the next step.
c) Thunderstorm sounds.
We set the date of desensitization to the sounds of the storm for the month of October, when the storm periods will end. It is important that during our process there are no factors that will put the dog under stress and cause the process to be reversed or interrupted - that is, a real storm. The therapy will consist in gradually setting the dog to the stimulus (the sound of a thunderstorm recorded on a CD) and simultaneously rewarding the dog (for calm behavior). Of course, the storm is not only sounds, but also the whole envelope, such as changes in atmospheric pressure, wind, rain, lightning, but since sound is the factor that dogs are afraid of and is the easiest to reproduce, this will be the first thing we do.
- The possibility of presenting substitute behaviors in accordance with the Osya pleasure budget) Walks - enabling the dog to explore the area, sniffing. As below, we want to adapt the changes to the needs of Wasp, i.e. to the balance of the dog's pleasure presented above. A dog that meets its needs is a happy dog and does not need to look for any other substitute behavior.
b) Walks - playing fetch and dragging a rag
c) More social contact with the dog (e.g. by grooming the dog)
d) Kong on the blanket. When there are activities with the child and when the Wasp has to stay on the blanket, she gets a kong filled with pate or something to chew (e.g. a bone). Chewing, licking are self-rewarding activities, besides, the wasp has developed a habit of "body care" to improve its mood, so we will provide it with the opportunity to present a different - alternative behavior
e) Creating a positive association with the blanket. So far, the blanket can be said to have been a "place of punishment", after all, the dog was chased to the blanket quite often. To build a new - good association Wasp will get treats from the owners when she is sitting on the blanket.
f) Basic training with the use of positive reinforcement. The owners are busy people, so if I imposed Osa training on them, they would probably feel demotivated by the enormity of work I imposed on them. Besides, their goal is not to have a perfectly trained dog. However, learning basic commands such as sit, down, come when called, and the command to send back to the blanket should help the dog to be mentally stimulated and the owners who will have a better-behaved dog that they will be happier with. To this end, I introduced training based on operant conditioning consisting in the use of positive reinforcement (desired behavior = reward) and negative punishment (undesirable behavior = interruption of the activity desired by the dog). I presented the owners with the principles of learning commands, and they successfully learned the sit command with me. The owners were surprised by the quick results, which made them feel motivated to keep working.
Contacts to discuss the results have been scheduled for the following days: April 22, May 6, May 20, June 7, December 13
Contact on 22.04. The owners have introduced each of the above. Already after the first week there was a change in the dog's behavior, a decrease in the level of stress the dog experienced every time someone approached his blanket. The wasp became noticeably calmer. During the storm, she continued to show concern and hid in the bathroom. The owners are clearly motivated and hope for further changes in the dog's behavior.
Contact on 06.05. The owners hired a pet sitter, Osa, who takes the dog for a 40-minute walk on a long leash 3 times a week, where he sniffs a lot. Every other day, the owners play fetch and drag the toy on a walk, Osa gets Kong on a blanket when they leave the house and when they are busy with the child. They feed the Osa in the presence of Maciek. The contact with the child is controlled, the boy throws the Taste Axes. There is an improvement in the dog-child relationship. The dog is clearly more relaxed in the presence of the child. The Wasp's needs began to be met, the licking of one's own body was effectively redirected to congas. The wasp is clearly less scratching.
Contact on 20.05. The change of food was effective, the smell disappeared. Therefore, the owners introduced desensitization of the dog to touch, and they achieved good results - the Wasp allows you to pat his head. Because she gets treats on a blanket, she willingly goes there and waits. Twice a week the Lady spends time only with Osa, then she combs her hair and strokes her. The owners said that Wasp has started to resemble the dog she was a few years ago and spending time with her is enjoyable. He still hides in the bathroom during a thunderstorm, but he doesn't shake anymore.
The owners were very involved in the work on the preservation of Wasp. They see positive results and are very motivated. In the next stage, they will train the basic commands, which they will treat in the form of games. If they persevere so far, I see the improvement in Wasp's behavior very positively. At the very beginning, I was quite skeptical, especially regarding the change in the penalty system used by the owner. However, the owners wanted to solve problematic situations and prevent similar incidents from happening again. The next stage scheduled for October is desensitization to the storm - in this regard, however, a lot of perseverance and systematic work are required, which may be difficult due to the work of the owners, but with the current level of motivation - feasible.
“Animal behavior, especially problematic behavior, is almost never easy to explain. The difficulty is mainly due to the fact that problem behavior is most often the resultant of many factors, such as innate predispositions and patterns of behavior, environmental influences, previous experience, medical condition, pharmacological treatment or diet.
Author: Edyta Gajewska
1. Nicole Wilde " My dog is not afraid. How to help your dog overcome his fears
2. Jean Donaldson “The Dog and the Man. How to live harmoniously under one roof
1. Robert Falconer-Taylor, "Understanding emotionality"
1. COAPE course, Module 3. Basic emotional systems of companion animals and their importance to modern veterinary and behavioral practice.
2. COAPE course, Module 3 EMRA - behavioral assessment model and a tool for designing and assessing the therapeutic process - PART 1
3. COAP. Module 3, Diet Manipulation in Dogs
4. COAPE course, Module 3. Basic emotional systems of companion animals and their importance to modern veterinary and behavioral practice.
5. Think Dog! Part IV - Aggression - its causes and consequences. Ways to control and possibilities of aggression in dogs. Supplement "Aggression and aggression thresholds" by Ewelina Włodarczyk